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Dry Eye

Dry Eye

Dry Eye, also known as ocular surface disease, is a common condition that occurs when the eyes do not produce enough tears, or when the tears cannot keep the eyes lubricated and healthy.


Dry Eye FAQ

  • Laser Vision Correction
    Laser vision correction is the use of advanced laser technology, such as LASIK, to reshape the corneal surface and correct a patient’s refractive error.
  • Dry Eye
    Also known as ocular surface disease, Dry Eye is a condition that occurs when the eyes are not properly lubricated to stay healthy.
  • Glaucoma
    There are many different types of glaucoma, which is essentially nerve damage of the eye. The majority of glaucoma disease types are associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP).
  • Keratoconus
    Keratoconus is an eye disease that occurs when the eye’s cornea becomes thin and cone-shaped.
  • Cataracts
    Cataracts, a common condition, occur when the eye’s natural crystalline lens becomes cloudy and can affect one or both eyes and can eventually lead to blindness.
  • Floaters
    Floaters, small dark shapes that drift across your field of vision, are part of the vitreous gel that fills the inside of the eyeball.
  • Presbyopia
    Presbyopia is when our natural lens behind the pupils becomes stiff with age, leading to reduced near-sighted vision.
  • Do you provide exams for contact lenses?
    Patients specifically seeking an exam for contact lenses will be scheduled with Dr. Goldberg. He has extensive training in contact lens options and fittings.
  • What insurance do you accept?
    You can find details on which insurance companies we accept here. For further questions, please call our office.
  • How long will my appointment last?
    Our appointments vary widely based on each patient’s individual needs. Those who need a comprehensive exam, including dilation of the eyes, should expect a longer visit. While some appointments can be as short as 15 minutes, it is possible for others to last 2 hours. We suggest you speak with our helpful front desk for more information about your scheduled appointment.
  • Can you help with back-to-school exams for my kids?
    Yes, we see kids ages 5 and older.
  • Can I use my glasses prescription anywhere, or do I have to use it at your optical shop?
    While you can take your prescription anywhere, our optical shop offers convenience, a wide selection of frames, and very experienced opticians!
  • What are the symptoms of keratoconus?
    The earliest signs and symptoms are progressive changes in one’s glasses prescription, as well as an overall deterioration in vision. Other symptoms may include: Distorted vision, where familiar objects look bent or wavy Frequent changes in eyeglass prescriptions Glare and halos around lights, which can make it difficult to drive at night Difficulty seeing at night Eye irritation and redness Headaches associated with eye pain Sudden and significant decrease in vision due to swelling Contact lenses that no longer fit properly and cause discomfort Keratoconus often affects both eyes. Each eye may be affected differently, and symptoms can change over time. Usually, it takes years to go from early stage keratoconus (the age of onset is the late teens to the early 20’s) to late stage keratoconus (into the mid 30’s). However, in some patients, the strain of a bulging cornea causes a tiny crack and sudden swelling to develop (corneal hydrops). As the crack gradually heals and is replaced by scar tissue, vision becomes even more distorted and blurry.
  • How is keratoconus treated?
    Treatment depends on the stage of the disease and severity of symptoms. There are two approaches: one is focused on vision correction, and the other is focused on slowing the progression of the disease. To slow or halt progression, corneal cross-linking surgery may be indicated. This procedure, which was approved as a treatment for keratoconus by the FDA in 2016, “cross-links” new collagen fibers together to preserve the cornea’s strength and shape. The method used to correct vision depends on the severity of the condition. In the earliest stages, nearsightedness and astigmatism due to keratoconus can be treated with eyeglasses or contact lenses. As the disease progresses, and the cornea continues to thin and change shape, eyeglasses may no longer be adequate for vision correction. Hard (rigid, gas permeable) lenses are often the next step in maintaining good vision. These types of lenses can be made to fit your corneas, but can be uncomfortable at first and require a period of adjustment. Some people with late-stage keratoconus and severe symptoms require a corneal transplant. Even after a corneal transplant, glasses or contact lenses are typically necessary to provide clear vision.
  • How do you screen for keratoconus?
    Keratoconus can be diagnosed with a routine eye exam and complete medical history. Dr. Logothetis may also conduct other diagnostic tests, such as: Computerized corneal mapping: This detailed photographic image shows the condition of the corneal surface and can measure the thickness of the cornea. Corneal topographic screening can provide early detection and better long-term outcomes, as newer treatments such as collagen cross-linking have optimal results when performed early in the course of the disease. This type of screening is the most accurate way to diagnose early keratoconus. Slit-lamp exam: Dr. Logothetis will shine a vertical beam of light on the surface of your eye and use a low-powered microscope to view the outer and middle layers of your cornea. Keratometry:. In this test, Dr. Logothetis focuses a circle of light on your cornea and measures the reflection, helping him determine the basic shape of your cornea. Eye refraction: Special equipment, such as a phoropter, is used to measure your eyes and check for vision problems. You may be asked to look through special lenses to ascertain which combination gives you the best vision. Sometimes hand-held equipment, such as a retinoscope, may be used to determine the refractive error in younger children.
  • Who gets floaters?
    Floaters are a common complaint. 76% of patients are young (age 30) and middle-aged! They are most common in people aged 50 and older. Floaters are also more common in people with nearsightedness. Usually, floaters are an annoyance but don’t interfere with vision. However, sometimes floaters interfere with vision or are a symptom of a more serious issue like an eye infection, eye injury, inflammation of the eye, bleeding in the eye, retinal detachment, vitreous detachment, or a retinal tear.
  • How are floaters diagnosed?
    Dr. Logothetis will check for floaters and vitreous detachment as part of a dilated eye exam. The examination is painless.
  • How are floaters treated?
    Usually floaters do not require treatment unless your eye exam reveals a serious retinal condition or the floaters significantly interfere with your vision. When your floaters interfere with your vision, there is a procedure called a YAG-vitreolysis that may be recommended to destroy the floaters and improve vision. If Dr. Logothetis does not believe the laser will be applicable to your condition, he may refer you to a retinal specialist to discuss a more definitive alternative known as a vitrectomy.
  • What are the symptoms of floaters?
    Most patients notice floaters develop gradually over time. As described earlier, most patients see lines, dots, webs, bugs and shapes that are usually gray, dark or transparent. If one noticed a sudden onset of a very large floater preceded by flashes of lights like a camera flash going off, they may have developed a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Vitreous detachment is a part of aging, it does not cause harm and requires no treatment. However, vitreous detachment may lead to more serious eye problems like retinal tears and retinal detachment. This is why it is so important to see Dr. Logothetis when you experience these symptoms, as well as to schedule regular annual eye exams, especially as we age.
  • What causes floaters?
    The eyeball contains a sticky gel-like substance called vitreous. It is full of tiny fibers that attach to the retina (the light-sensitive area lining the inside of the eye). With age, the vitreous fibers pull away from the retina creating shadows on the retina that appear as floaters.
  • Why choose Eye Physicians of Libertyville for laser vision correction?
    Before deciding on laser vision correction, it is important to have a clear understanding of the procedure. Dr. Logothetis is a fellowship-trained ophthalmologist who is a LASIK patient himself. He completed one of the most prestigious refractive surgery fellowships in the country, putting him in a very select group of surgeons who have completed similar training. He uniquely understands the questions and concerns patients might have before laser correction surgery, and takes pride in using his expertise and personal experience to educate patients on all of the refractive surgery options. Unlike some higher volume practices, Dr. Logothetis will be with you on your laser vision correction journey from start to finish. You can rest assured that your surgeon will be educating you and facilitating your experience through the end. Considered an expert in refractive surgery, Dr. Logothetis has published and presented on various topics in the field. He has been performing SMILE since 2018, making him the earliest adopter of the procedure in Lake County and the Chicagoland area.
  • What are the types of laser vision correction?
    There are different techniques, each with their own benefits and risks. Dr. Logothetis will help you determine, based on your circumstances and needs, which of the following types of laser vision correction may be right for you: LASIK This type of surgery is the most well known and most commonly performed. It was first approved by the FDA in 1998 and has maintained its popularity with patients and surgeons. Performed in Lake County, Dr. Logothetis uses a femtosecond laser to create a thin, smooth flap in the cornea. Then, he uses an excimer laser to reshape the cornea and correct one’s prescription. After the cornea is precisely reshaped into the desired contour, Dr. Logothetis will return the flap to its original position and smooth the edges. After two to three minutes, the flap will attach on its own and begin healing. Greater than 99% of patients who have LASIK have somewhere between 20/20 and 20/40 vision after surgery. Discomfort is minimal, although it is recommended to take a nap or relax for the rest of the day. You may need to wear a transparent plastic shield over the eye, to prevent you from rubbing your eye and causing the flap to shift out of place before it heals. Vision recovery usually takes place in one or two days, and most patients are able to drive to their ophthalmologist's office for their follow up visit the next day. Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE) SMILE is the latest addition to the refractive surgeon’s tool box. It is currently FDA-approved to treat most cases of myopia and astigmatism. It cannot correct hyperopia. This technique uses a femtosecond laser to make a disc-shaped piece of corneal tissue (lenticule) within the cornea. A small corneal incision is made in your cornea, giving Dr. Logothetis access to the lenticule. He will then gently dissect and remove the lenticule from the cornea, thereby correcting your prescription. Since SMILE does not involve cutting a flap in the cornea as LASIK does, it is a good option for those with an active lifestyle or career who may be concerned about any problems with a corneal flap. Studies also show that over the first 6 months after surgery, SMILE patients report less dry eye symptoms than LASIK patients. People who have SMILE are able to do most of their daily tasks without corrective lenses. It takes several days and weeks of healing before you achieve optimal results, and your vision may be blurry right after surgery. Photorefactive Keractectomy (PRK) With PRK, Dr. Logothetis scrapes away the layer of cells that cover the surface of the cornea (corneal epithelium). An excimer laser is then used to reshape the corneal surface and correct your prescription. Over the course of four to five days, the corneal abrasion heals. As you heal, your vision will gradually begin to improve. It can take several months to achieve optimum results. PRK is recommended for patients who may not be good candidates for LASIK surgery. Those with active lifestyles who may have concerns about accidentally dislodging a corneal flap via trauma. If you play contact sports or have a career in the military or law enforcement, PRK may be the better option for you. PRK traditionally has a longer healing and recovery time.
  • Are there types of close-up vision loss that laser corrective surgery can’t correct?
    Yes, refractive surgery cannot correct the age-related loss of close-up vision known as presbyopia. Whether or not you have laser vision correction, you will likely need reading glasses once you are over 40. Presbyopia is one of the most common reasons patients come to see Dr. Logothetis, and if you’re experiencing symptoms, he will thoroughly explain to you the various modalities that exist to correct it.
  • How is Dry Eye diagnosed?
    Our providers will perform a comprehensive exam that includes asking about your symptoms and medical history and employing approved Dry Eye testing. The exam usually includes a slit lamp examination, during which they will look at your eyes with a special microscope to check for any damage to the surface of the eye. Your doctor will also perform tests to measure the amount of tears you produce, and the quality of your tears. This can be done with a test called the Schirmer test, in which strips of paper are placed under the lower eyelids to measure tear production. Our clinic also relies on Inflammadry testing and TearCare testing.
  • What are the symptoms of Dry Eye?
    Symptoms vary from person to person and may include: A feeling of discomfort or pain in the eye Dryness A sensation of something in the eye Itchy or red eyes Stinging and burning eyes Watery eyes (this may seem counterintuitive, but it is a response of the eye to try and compensate for the lack of tears) Sensitivity to light Difficulty wearing contact lenses Trouble with vision, such as blurred vision or decreased night vision Eye fatigue
  • What causes Dry Eye disease?
    Tears are made of water, oil and mucus. They function to lubricate the eyeball. There are many different causes of Dry Eye, including: Age: As we age, our eyes produce fewer tears. This is why Dry Eye is more common in older adults. Gender: Women are more likely to suffer from Dry Eye than men, due to hormonal changes during menopause. Medications: Certain medications can decrease the production of tears, or make the tears evaporate more quickly. These include antihistamines, decongestants, blood pressure drugs like beta blockers, oral contraceptives, and antidepressants. Medical conditions: Inflamed eyelid glands that become clogged with oil cause blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelids), and eye mites accumulate in the oil glands and are common with Acne Rosacea and other skin conditions. Dry Eye can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as Parkinson’s, Sjögren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, diabetes, thyroid disease, and vitamin A deficiency. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD): When the meibomian oil glands in the eyelids become blocked and unable to produce tear film that covers the eyeball, it is called MGD. MGD is believed to be the leading cause of Dry Eye Disease; and is especially important for patients who need cataract surgery or refractive surgery (Lasik and other forms of refractive surgery). Treatment of MGD is vital to the outcome of any surgical procedure. Optimizing eye health is key to a good surgical outcome. Environmental factors: Dry Eye can be caused by wind, smoke, and dry air. This is why it is more common in places with low humidity, heat, and cold weather, such as deserts or high altitudes. Eye surgery and corneal damage: caused by contact lens use, corneal nerve damage and laser eye surgery can temporarily induce or exacerbate Dry Eye Disease and worsen vision, increase symptoms, and impact the outcome of eye surgery. Lifestyle conditions: smoking, less blinking while reading, driving, doing computer work, preservatives in eye drops, and diets low in omega 3 fatty acids and vitamin D can lead to Dry Eye.
  • What are the treatments for Dry Eye?
    The goal of Dry Eye treatment is to improve eye comfort and normalize the ocular surface. There are many options that can be combined to find the best treatment, and offer the most relief, for you. Lifestyle changes, including quitting smoking, avoiding sun, windy and dry environments, increasing humidity in your environment, staying hydrated, increasing the intake of essential fatty acids, and wearing sunglasses. Becoming mindful of the need to blink while using a computer. Warm eye compresses to release clogged eyelid glands. Eyelid hygiene. Artificial tears Antibiotic eye ointment and drops for eye mites and to release clogged eyelid oil glands. This improves the quality of your tears and moistens the eye. Prescription eye drops like Restasis and Xiidra Steroid eye drops (for short term treatment) Punctal plugs, placed in your tear ducts to prevent your tears from draining from the eye. Temporary dissolving plugs can be tried to see whether this helps, and if so, longer lasting plugs can be placed. Cautery, a procedure to scar the tear ducts, can acts as permanent punctal plugs Lipiflow, a medical device that creates heat to unclog blocked eyelid oil glands, allowing released oil to improve the quality of your tears and moistens the eye
  • How are cataracts diagnosed?
    If you’re experiencing symptoms, Dr. Logothetis will perform a comprehensive eye exam to establish the etiology of your visual complaints and identify relevant eye pathology. This exam includes a measurement of your glasses prescription (refraction), dilation of your pupils to see the entire posterior segment of your eye, and a detailed analysis of the anterior segment of your eye using a microscope known as a slit lamp. Surgery is only recommended when Dr. Logothetis believes that you have a cataract whose removal will alleviate a subjective complaint you may have regarding your vision.
  • What should I expect from cataract surgery?
    Cataract surgery involves the removal of your cloudy lens and replacing it with a new lens known as an IOL (intraocular lens implant). There are many types of IOLs and Dr. Logothetis takes care to decide which is best for each individual patient. Keep in mind that cataract surgery is performed on one eye at a time. If you have cataracts in both eyes, you will need two surgeries a few weeks apart to provide time for healing while avoiding interfering with your ability to perform your daily activities. Currently, Dr. Logothetis operates out of Advocate Condell Medical Center utilizing their same day operating room suite. Most patients have an IV established by the anesthesiology team to facilitate light “twilight” sedation. You will also receive anesthetic eye drops before the procedure so that you will not feel any pain or discomfort. Dr. Logothetis prides himself on creating an efficient and smooth experience for his patients. Your cataract will be removed by a process known as a phacoemulsification. This involves the use of a high frequency ultrasound probe to break down and aspirate the old lens material. This technique allows for quick recovery and rarely requires sutures. Some surgeons choose to use an alternative method of cataract surgery called FLACS (femto-second assisted cataract surgery). While Dr. Logothetis has both trained and been certified in this method, he has found that the use of the laser did not add any benefit to his surgical technique or patient outcomes. Therefore he continues to use the most commonly chosen technique of phacoemulsification. After surgery, you will receive complete postoperative instructions. Initially, you may feel discomfort, light sensitivity, blurred vision, and eye watering. You will need to use prescribed eyedrops to promote healing and minimize risk of infection. It can take up to one month for the eye to heal, but your vision will improve within days or weeks. Once you have cataract surgery you should not need it again. However, sometimes cloudiness can occur behind the artificial lens within weeks to months after surgery. This is easily treated with a one-minute procedure called a posterior capsulotomy using a laser in clinic. Within a day your vision will clear once again.
  • What causes a cataract?
    Everyone is born with a clear natural lens that sits behind one’s pupil. The lens is made of water and proteins. Around age 40, the lens begins to stiffen in a process known as presbyopia. Many people begin to notice that their reading vision worsens at this time. The lens continues to stiffen every subsequent year and by 50 it starts to become cloudy. A cloudy lens is what we call a cataract. Age–related cataracts are the most common cause of blindness. In fact, by age 80, more than half of all Americans either have a cataract or have had cataract surgery. These cataracts develop slowly as the result of years of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light that breaks down the natural lens proteins. Breakdown of the lens material leads to deterioration in vision. Changes happen so slowly that patients often do not realize that their quality of vision has diminished. While cataracts are commonly associated with aging, they sometimes develop in younger patients and children. These types of cataracts typically develop more quickly and have other associated causes. Diabetes is another common risk factor. Diabetic patients are 2-5 times more at risk of developing cataracts at an earlier age. Other risk factors include: family history smoking heavy air pollution alcohol use medications like steroids upper body radiation treatments trauma to or surgery of the eye spending a great deal of time in the sun without eye protection.
  • What are the symptoms of a cataract?
    Symptoms include blurry vision, difficulty seeing at night, needing more light to see well when reading, seeing double or distorted images, seeing faded or yellowed colors, sensitivity to light, and halos around lights.
  • What are the treatments for cataracts?
    If Dr. Logothetis diagnoses cataracts, it does not necessarily mean you require surgery. Often, he recommends observing the cataracts over time and simply changing your prescription eyeglasses. Dr. Logothetis places significant value on listening to a patient’s complaints to decide if removing a cataract will truly resolve their issues. Ultimately, when your cataracts cause significant vision loss, he will recommend cataract surgery. Surgery is the only way to remove cataracts and restore vision. Cataract surgery is a safe and effective low-risk outpatient procedure with complication rates less than 1%. More importantly, in the context of cataract surgery, a complication means something that may require a second trip to the operating room. In the majority of these rare cases, patients still do well and find they’ve had significant improvement to their quality of vision compared to before surgery.
  • What are the symptoms of open-angle glaucoma?
    Open-angle glaucoma develops slowly and typically has no early warning signs. The first sign is usually vision loss that comes on gradually, affects peripheral vision, and may not be immediately noticeable. As peripheral vision is lost the result is tunnel vision. The inability of patients to notice peripheral vision loss early on is one of the primary reasons why the clinicians at Eye Physicians of Libertyville are so diligent about screening for glaucoma from a young age. Since optic nerve damage is irreversible, our best tool is early detection.
  • How is open-angle glaucoma treated?
    There are several treatment options: Prescription eye drops to lower eye pressure are often the first treatment. They must be used daily and sometimes more frequently. There are multiple types of glaucoma eye drops and you may need to try several before you find one that works for you. Usually they work, but if not, Dr. Logothetis will discuss other treatment options. An in-office laser treatment to lower eye pressure is called a trabeculoplasty or SLT. In this minimally invasive procedure, Dr. Logothetis will numb your eye and direct a beam of laser light to help open the drain of your eye. After the treatment, your vision may be blurry and you may experience some light sensitivity during the first few days after the procedure. Due to this possible side effect, patients are asked to use a steroid eye drop for five days following the treatment. The procedure usually takes 1-2 minutes. It can take 4-6 weeks to know whether the procedure was effective. Even when it is effective, most patients need to continue to use prescribed eye drops to reduce IOP. Further, the results of laser trabeculoplasty can diminish with time, but the procedure can be repeated, or another procedure pursued. Recently, landmark studies have indicated that utilizing SLT as a first line therapy may be preferred. MIGS stands for Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery. Technologies have expanded rapidly in the last decade and transformed the manner in which eye surgeons can help glaucoma patients. There are various types of MIGS, and Dr. Logothetis utilizes several of them at the time of cataract surgery in suitable patients. For more severe cases, patients may be offered alternative surgeries such as trabeculectomy, tube shunt or CPD diode. If you are a suitable candidate for these procedures, Dr. Logothetis will refer you to a local glaucoma surgeon who performs these regularly.
  • What are the risk factors associated with open-angle glaucoma?
    You're at increased risk if you: Are age 40 or older Are African American, Asian, or Hispanic heritage Have had an eye injury Have a family history of glaucoma Have diabetes, migraines, high blood pressure, or poor circulation Use steroids for long periods Have elevated intraocular pressure Have thin corneas
  • How do you evaluate or diagnose glaucoma?
    The primary method to evaluate whether a patient has glaucoma is through screening tests conducted over time. It’s not possible to officially diagnose a patient with glaucoma after one visit or an individual test. The only management option available is to lower the eye pressure through various methods, including medications, to decrease the pace of disease progression.
  • What is open-angle glaucoma?
    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma. In open-angle glaucoma, the angle between the iris (the colored part of the eye) and the cornea (the clear front part of the eye) is open. In other words, the drain of the eye is easily accessible. Similar to all forms of glaucoma, open-angle glaucoma can cause peripheral vision loss over time.
  • How is open-angle glaucoma diagnosed?
    Open-angle glaucoma is diagnosed by using several screening tests that are repeated over multiple visits to determine if there is truly progressive nerve damage and vision loss. The primary screening tests involved high resolution optic nerve photos measuring the thickness of the nerve fiber layer, visual field tests testing peripheral vision as well as measurements of intraocular pressure with a goldmann tonometer.
  • How is presbyopia treated?
    Since presbyopia is a natural part of the aging process, there is no cure. However, there are a wide range of vision correction options available today. Our optical shop carries a wide range of lenses to accommodate presbyopia. If you already have a refractive error such as nearsightedness (myopia) farsightedness (hyperopia) or astigmatism, our doctors may recommend the following treatment options: Bifocals: A line (visible or not) divides the lens of these eyeglasses. They contain two lens powers to accommodate vision near and far. The top part of the lens contains the distance prescription, while the bottom part of the lens contains the prescription for near vision. Trifocal lenses: These eyeglasses are similar to bifocals, but they contain three lens powers for distance, intermediate, and near vision. Progressives: These eyeglasses contain multiple lens powers with a gradual shift between the prescriptions and no bisecting line. Bifocal and multifocal contact lenses: Bifocal lenses have two prescriptions in one lens, allowing you to see both near and far. Multifocal lenses have a range of powers in each lens. Monovision contact lenses: Each lens has a different prescription, allowing one eye to see objects in the distance clearly, while the other eye can see things up close. Monovision lenses require some time, up to two weeks, for your brain to adapt to this way of seeing. It may impair your ability to judge the distance or speed of objects. Laser refractive surgery: If you successfully adapt to monovision contact lenses, you might be a candidate for refractive surgery to achieve monovision. With this procedure, Dr. Logothetis reshapes your corneas to see distance vision with one eye and near vision with the other. Topical medications: The FDA approved presbyopia-correcting drops in 2022. This may not be suitable for all patients so it’s important you discuss this at your eye exam.
  • What are the symptoms of presbyopia?
    Starting in your early to mid-40’s, you may notice that you need to hold reading materials or other objects farther away in order to see them clearly. You may have blurred vision at a normal reading distance, or need more light while reading. With the chronic use of computers and cell phones, we are seeing this trend start at earlier ages. In the early stages of presbyopia, you can make some simple adjustments in order to see better. These include: Holding reading materials (books, magazines, menus, digital devices) farther away to make the letters clearer Choosing large-print books Increasing the level of magnification on your devices Use brighter reading lights or move to a brighter location However, if you do not treat presbyopia, you may develop eye strain (sore and tired eyes), visual fatigue, and headaches. Regular visits to our office can help prevent this discomfort.
  • Do I need a prescription for reading glasses?
    If presbyopia is the only cause of your symptoms, a pair of reading glasses may be all you need. You should only use them when doing close-up work, such as reading or sewing. Our optical shop has a great selection of stylish, affordable readers! Even so, you should have a complete eye exam to determine the power of reading glasses you need.
  • What causes presbyopia?
    The natural lenses in our eyes are flexible when we are younger, making it easy for our eyes to change focal points. After the age of 40, the lens becomes more rigid and loses flexibility, no longer changing shape as easily or focusing light directly onto the retina.
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